The gilets jaunes have all the characteristics of a successful mass movement in the age of the Internet: a message that cuts across political fault lines, a highly visible ‘branding,’ and a sense of indignation that allows them to outlast their political opponents now under siege in the Élysée Palace.

Their appearance in French politics is a game-changer, and not just because of what it portends for President Macron’s reform platform. The movement’s sudden appearance, spread, and ultimate success reflect the growing anti-politics void at the center of French public life.

You might call it ‘Populism 2.0.’