In response to economic instability and ongoing currency depreciation, Zimbabwe has recently launched a gold-backed digital currency. This innovative approach uses blockchain technology to issue tokens linked to the value of physical gold. The aim is to provide a reliable and secure value holder in a country suffering from frequent hyperinflation and a significantly depreciated local currency.
The situation in Zimbabwe carries substantial geoeconomics significance, demonstrating an effort to use digitization to combat economic instability. Zimbabwe’s decision is also emblematic of a trend among policymakers in supporting digital assets backed by tangible commodities to shore up public trust in the local currency.
In the late 2000s, Zimbabwe experienced a severe bout of hyperinflation that culminated with the suspension of the Zimbabwean dollar in 2009. During this period, a multi-currency system was introduced, and Zimbabweans saw their savings wiped out with severe shortages of basic goods and services. Nearly a decade later, Zimbabwe launched the real time gross settlement (RTGS) dollar, a move that was followed up with a ban on the US dollar to support adoption of the new currency. Nevertheless, efforts to revive public trust in the currency have faltered, leading to the current initiative of a gold-backed digital currency to combat depreciation and offer a stable, non-fiat alternative.
While the concept of a digital currency backed by gold sounds promising, doubts arise when considering Zimbabwe’s institutional weaknesses and its poor track record in restoring public faith in the government’s management of the economy. Zimbabwe’s political environment is fraught with challenges that pose obstacles to successful implementation and acceptance of the gold-backed digital currency. As demonstrated in the country’s experience with the reintroduction of the Zimbabwean dollar, the absence of reforms or policies tackling the underlying economic challenges, such as the government’s fiscal deficit, and lack of productive investment, suggests the new currency is unlikely to encourage scaled adoption.
Furthermore, concerns over transparency and institutional safeguards to prevent macroeconomic shocks, money laundering, and fraud remain unaddressed. Just as experts had cast doubt on the RTGS, the International Monetary Fund has issued its own warning over Zimbabwe’s move, suggesting instead that the country would be best served in liberalizing its foreign exchange to protect against “costs and potential risks” of the move.
Zimbabwe’s pivot towards a gold-backed digital currency reflects a broader global trend: the shift toward alternative currencies and digital assets. As economic instability and inflation continue to plague emerging and developing economies, traditional financial systems are under scrutiny. Amid fiscal and monetary uncertainty, policymakers are exploring bolder solutions involving digitization and the backing of tangible assets as a lifeline for combating inflation and providing stability. Zimbabwe’s case is unique, as their launch represents the first instance of a gold-backed currency issued by a central bank. In the most ideal of circumstances, a successful adoption and integration of the currency would empower Zimbabwe to regain control over its monetary policy. But a positive domestic reception would not allay concerns voiced by global financial institutions.
In the regional context, Sub-Saharan Africa has demonstrated a keen interest in modern fintech solutions. Examples include the mobile banking and payment infrastructure provided by M-PESA, which has expanded access and adoption of mobile banking services across several states in East and Southern Africa. The likes of Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa have established burgeoning fintech hubs keen on scaling innovative payment and banking services without the reliance on costly physical infrastructure like bank branches.
The scaled adoption of Zimbabwe’s gold-backed digital currency presents various challenges. In particular, the lack of technological infrastructure, widespread internet access, and disparities in digital literacy hinder the successful deployment and adoption of digital currencies throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. Furthermore, regulatory frameworks remain inadequately prepared to handle the unknowns and complexities associated with digital currencies. In the example of El Salvador, the decision to adopt Bitcoin as legal tender and incentivize investment and adoption was followed by a sharp decline in cryptocurrencies, underscoring the volatility and challenges with integrating alternative currencies with limited history.
Despite Zimbabwe’s incorporation of gold as backing for its digital currency, it is crucial to consider the unique challenges that this presents. First, the gold reserves backing Zimbabwe’s currency expose the nation to gold price volatility. Given the current resilience in gold prices, driven primarily by the demand from central banks, any significant drops in the future will undermine the currency’s staying power. Second, Zimbabwe’s status as major producer of gold means the currency could further strain the mining industry. Increased demand for gold could encourage expansion of artisanal mining and enflame existing problems, including Zimbabwe’s chronic issues with gold smuggling, environmental damage, labor issues, and displacement of communities located in proximity to active mining sites. Additionally, Zimbabwe’s move could divert resources and investment from other sectors, stagnating diversification efforts and lead to an over-reliance on the gold industry to prop up the economy.
The experience and impact of Zimbabwe’s gold-backed digital currency will be felt beyond the country’s borders, providing important lessons for other countries exploring similar options. Moving forward, Zimbabwe’s case will be a key reference in the search for modern financial solutions.