The controversial Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) in the Horn of Africa remains a significant source of regional tension. Ethiopia’s decision to continue the dam’s fourth filling, coupled with the Sudanese conflict, further complicates an already delicate dispute. Egypt and Sudan, both heavily reliant on Nile water, cite concerns about their water rights, highlighting the urgent need for negotiation and cooperation. Recent talks between Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi and Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed concluded with an agreement to resolve the dispute in the next four months.
Ethiopia’s plans for the GERD to help meet its energy and developmental needs, which Egypt and Sudan view as a potential threat to their Nile water access. The Nile is crucial for both countries, providing fresh water for Egypt and supporting Sudan’s irrigation and hydroelectricity systems. Ethiopia’s unilateral action to fill the dam further escalates this tension, spotlighting water security concerns and worsening regional strain.