Joshua Bernard B. Espeña

Joshua Bernard B. Espeña is a defense analyst in the Office for Strategic Studies and Strategy Management of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. He is currently taking his Master in International Studies at the University of the Philippines, Diliman. He writes on the Great Power Politics of the Indo-Pacific, Philippine Strategic Culture, and ASEAN Studies. He can be reached at LinkedIn.

In Search of an Independent China Policy in Post-Duterte Philippines

Rodrigo Duterte, CC Flickr, Casino Connection, Modified, https://www.flickr.com/photos/globalgamingbusiness/28758099456/

A more holistic approach will be needed if the Philippines is to craft a China policy that’s actually fit for purpose.

India and the South China Sea: What the Philippines can Expect

ARABIAN GULF (Dec. 16, 2017) Lightning strikes near the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71) as it transits the Arabian Gulf. Theodore Roosevelt and its carrier strike group are deployed to the U.S. 5th Fleet area of operations in support of maritime security operations to reassure allies and partners and preserve the freedom of navigation and the free flow of commerce in the region. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by 1st Lt. Mark Vetere/Released)171216-M-DI829-1001 , cc Flickr Official U.S. Navy Page, modified, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Although India has toughened its stance against China in the South China Sea, the Philippines cannot expect a free lunch regarding its interests there.

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